Pronombres de Objeto Directo y de Objeto Indirecto (continuación)

Another way to distinguish when an object is direct or indirect is to analyze the nature of the verb as it functions inside the sentence. This way we will be able to recognize verbs like saludar, ayudar, respetar, visitar, ver, estimar, apreciar, odiar + a +  a person or group of people. In all these cases there is the preposition A before the object but it is what we call “ la A personal” and the objects are direct. Therefore  we would say: LO ODIO, LAS RESPETO, LOS AYUDO, etc.


There is nothing between the verbs above and the person. We cannot say “yo respeto algo a alguien”.

However, we say  DAR ALGO A ALGUIEN, PEDIR ALGO A ALGUIEN, DECIR ALGO A ALGUIEN, TRAER ALGO A ALGUIEN, CONTAR ALGO A ALGUIEN. Even if the ALGO is not mentioned, it is implicit. Therefore the ALGUIEN is an INDIRECT OBJECT and requires  an Indirect Object Pronoun to replace it.

For example:

Ayer ví a Rosa y  LE  di el informe
Cuando visito a mis sobrinos siempre LES llevo regalos.
Pedí dinero a mi amigo. LE pedí cien dólares.

Pretérito versus Imperfecto

Spanish languge tips for learners: Pretérito versus  Imperfecto

Think of  Pretérito as a tense for specific actions, events or for enumerating a series of actions.

For example:

Anoche cenaste con tus amigos.  Last night you (familiar, singular, tú) had dinner with your frineds.
¿Cuándo visitaron Ustedes el museo?  When did you (plural) visit the museum?
Yo no comí mucho.  I did not eat a lot.
Recibí una carta ayer.  I received a letter yesterday.
Primero me duché, después me vestí, y luego salí. First, I showered, then I got dressed and, after that, I left.
Hubo un incendio aquí  la semana pasada. There was a fire here last week.
Ella fue a Caracas dos veces. She went to Caracas twice.

Think of the Imperfect Tense for ongoing situations, descriptions  or underlying conditions. Also it is used to convey habits in the past (in English the equivalent: “used to + infinitive”)

For example:

Había mucha gente en la fiesta There were many  people at the party. (descriptions  or underlying conditions)
El cielo estaba nublado. The sky was cloudy. (descriptions  or underlying conditions)
Mientras los niños jugaban yo los observaba. While the kids were playing I was watching them. (ongoing situations)
Cuando eramos niños  veíamos los dibujos animados después de hacer la tarea. When we were children we used to watch cartoons after doing homework.  (habits in the past)
Cuando mi abuela era jóven las mujeres tenían menos oportunidades. When my grandmother was young women had fewer opportunities. (descriptions  or underlying conditions)
La calle estaba sucia. The street was dirty. (descriptions  or underlying conditions)